Mulberries are trees or shrubs with a height of 3-10 meters, up to 15 meters in height, and a DBH of 50 cm or more. The bark is thick, gray, and irregularly lobed; leaves are ovate or broadly ovate, 5 -15 cm, base rounded to shallow heart-shaped, edges jagged, obtuse, sometimes leaves are variously divided, surface bright green, glabrous, abaxially hairy along veins, veins axillary tufted; flowers unisexual, axillary or Born in the axils of bud scales, born at the same time as the leaves; the cones are oval-shaped, 1-2.5 cm long, red or dark purple when mature. Flowering from April to May, fruiting from May to August.
Mulberries like a warm and humid climate and are slightly shade-resistant. The temperature begins to germinate when the temperature is above 12 ℃, and the suitable growth temperature is 25-30 ℃. If it exceeds 40 ℃, it will be inhibited. If it drops below 12 ℃, it will stop growing. Drought-resistant, non-waterlogged, and barren. Strong adaptability to soil.
It is native to central and northern China, and is now cultivated from northeast to southwest provinces and from northwest to Xinjiang. North Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Central Asian countries, Russia, Europe and other places as well as India and Vietnam are also cultivated.
Morus alba L. var. Multicaulis (Perrott.) Loud.), The species is different from mulberry in that the leaves are large and thick, the leaves can reach 30 cm in length, and the surface is bubbly and shrunk; the cones are cylindrical, 1.5-2 cm long, white-green or purple-black when mature. Because the leaves are large and the meat is thick and juicy, it is a good feed for silkworm. It is cultivated in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Sichuan and Shaanxi, China.
Harvest purple ripe mulberries, rub off the flesh, wash the seeds, and then plant them or store them in wet sand. Spring sowing, summer sowing, and autumn sowing are all available. Summer and autumn sowing can use new seeds of the year. Before sowing, soak the seeds in warm water at 50 ℃, soak for another 12 hours after natural cooling, store in a wet sand to promote germination, and keep it moist. When the seed coat breaks and becomes white, you can sow the seeds. The depth is 1 cm, and the seed volume is 7.5-15 kg per meter per hour. Cover the soil. After about 10 days emerge. Seedlings between 3-4 cm in height, weak and strong, and make up seedlings. In spring and autumn, seedlings are set at a distance of 10-15 cm.
In the bag connection method, the scion is cut and stored in wet sand 20 days before the grafting, so that the cortex and xylem of the rootstock are cut into a bag shape, and then inserted into the scion to tighten it. Budding, T-shaped buds or tubular buds (sleeve) in spring and summer.
In early spring, the mother plant was fixed horizontally on the ground, buried in the trench, exposing the top, compacted with soil, and separated from the mother after rooting. Planting takes place in spring or autumn. Open the hole according to the row and the plant distance of 2 meters × 0.4 meters, the hole diameter is 0.5-0.7 meters, the bottom of the hole is applied with rotten manure, and a thin layer of soil is planted. After filling in the table soil, the plant is lifted up to make the root stretch. , And then fill the heart soil, compaction, watering.
The ancient Chinese people had a tradition of planting mulberry trees and azaleas in front of houses and houses. Therefore, "mulberry" was often used to represent homeland and hometown.