Alfalfa (scientific name: Medigo sativa.) Leguminous, alfalfa is a perennial herb with thick roots, deep into the soil, and a well-developed root neck. It is native to Asia Minor, Iran, Trans-Caucasus, etc. Born mostly in fields, roadsides, grasslands and river banks. Currently cultivated or semi-wild in all parts of the world.
Herbs perennial, 30-100 cm tall. The roots are thick, deep into the soil, and the root neck is well developed. The stems are erect, tufted, or even supine, quadrangular, glabrous or slightly pilose, with lush foliage. Pinnate three compound leaves; stipules large, ovate-lanceolate, apex sharp, entire base or 1-2 tooth-lobed, veins clear; petiole shorter than leaflets;
Inflorescence racemic or head-shaped, 1-2.5 cm long, with 5-30 flowers; total pedicels erect, longer than leaves; bracts linearly tapered, longer or equal than pedicels; flowers 6-12 mm long; Pedicel short, about 2 mm long; 萼 bell-shaped, 3-5 mm long, calyx teeth linearly tapered, longer than calyx tube, appressed pilose; corolla colors: pale yellow, dark blue to dark purple, petals are long Petiole, flag petals oblong, apex slightly concave, obviously longer than wing and keel petals, wing petals slightly longer than keel petals; ovary linear, pilose, style short and wide, fine tip, stigma point, Ovules numerous.
Pods spirally tightly rolled 2-4 (-6) circles, no or near-porous in the center, 5-9 mm in diameter, pilose or gradually shed, veins fine, unclear, brown when ripe; seeds 10- 20 capsules. Seeds ovate, 1-2.5 mm long, smooth, yellow or brown. Flowering from May to July, fruiting from June to August.
Alfalfa is rich in high-quality dietary fiber, edible protein, multiple vitamins (including vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E, etc.), a variety of beneficial minerals, and bioactive ingredients such as saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic acids.
It is cultivated or semi-wild throughout the country. Born in fields, roadsides, wilderness, grasslands, river banks and valleys. Eurasia and countries around the world are widely cultivated as fodder and forage.
Alfalfa mostly adopts sowing and breeding methods.
1. Seeding time
Divided into spring sowing, autumn sowing. Spring sowing in Wenquan County is generally from late March to early May, and the ground temperature can be sown when it is stable above 5 ° C. Autumn sowing is generally at the end of August and early September, so that alfalfa has a growth period of about 60 days before the winter. After sowing in autumn, soil moisture is good, weeds are less harmful, and the emergence rate and survival rate are high. It is an ideal sowing time.
2. Seeding method
Sowing method: It can be used for single seeding, nesting (usually after the wheat is watered twice), or mixed seeding (mixing with other grass species).
One is manual spreading. Spreading is a simple and convenient seeding method commonly used. It is mostly used on small plots, grass replanting, and soil and water conservation on sloping fields. It is also used for planting alfalfa between crops. Adding fine sand during manual sowing. The ratio of seed to fine sand is 1: 6-8. The water is first sown and then spread. Generally, after the seeds are sprinkled on the ground, they are hoeed on the ground with rakes or branches to play the role of shallow soil. Emergence is good under rainy conditions. Disadvantages of sowing are inconsistent shades, uneven sowing, uneven seedlings, and no line spacing, making it difficult to manage cultivating and weeding;
Second, mechanical seeding is suitable for large-area seeding, which is convenient for later field management, and has good seeding quality, high yield and good efficiency.
Eurasia and countries around the world are widely cultivated as fodder and forage. The alfalfa stems and leaves are tender and delicious. Regardless of the fodder, silage, green hay, processed grass powder, used for compound feed or mixed feed, all kinds of livestock and poultry are the most favorite, and it is also the first choice for pig and poultry industry.
Alfalfa contains 5 kinds of vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E, 10 kinds of minerals, and three kinds of plant-specific nutrients such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic acids. Their main functions are as follows:
1. Flavonoids: have anti-oxidant effect, at the same time can prevent the deposition of cholesterol on the arteries, and avoid blood clotting to reduce the probability of arteriosclerosis. Flavonoids can also block the adverse activity of certain hormones, inhibit the activity of enzymes that cause inflammation, and also inhibit microvascular hyperplasia.
2. Phenolic acid: It has anti-oxidant effect and can be regarded as an anti-oxidant substance, which can prevent blood from coagulating into a plate, keep blood in the blood vessels unobstructed, and reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases.
3. Carotenoids: protect the eyes and prevent degenerative diseases of the eye nerves. In the human body, cells can be matured and differentiated. In the prevention of diseases, it has been proven to have certain effects in preventing the recurrence of cancer and preventing the occurrence of heart disease. Clinically, some carotenoids have begun to be used in cancer patients for additional preventive chemotherapy.